Publication Date

Spring 4-2023


College of Arts and Sciences


Applied Mathematics and Statistics


SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, Antibody, Vaccine, Biostatistics, Generalized Linear Model


Biostatistics | Categorical Data Analysis | Epidemiology | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Longitudinal Data Analysis and Time Series | Statistical Methodology | Viruses


In 2020, the virus SARS-CoV-2 gained attention as it spread around the world. Its antibodies are poorly understood, and little research focuses on those with few COVID-19 complications yet large numbers of close contacts: university students. This longitudinal study recorded SARS-CoV-2 antibody presence in 107 undergraduate Liberty University students twice during early 2021. After extensive data cleaning and the application of various statistical tests and ANOVAs, the data seems to show that in the case of COVID-19 infections, SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies are immediately produced, and then IgG antibodies follow later. However, the COVID-19 vaccine causes the production of both IgM and IgG antibodies right away, which then disappear more rapidly than those from a natural infection.