Publication Date



College of Arts and Sciences


Psychology: Clinical/Experimental

Primary Subject Area

Psychology, Behavioral; Psychology, Cognitive; Psychology, Developmental; Psychology, Social


Clinical Psychology


The father-son relationship is an influential part of any boy’s development. It is hypothesized that there is a generational difference in this relationship between the older and younger generation. The Father Form of the Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess this hypothesis. This questionnaire utilized 25 items, separated into the care and protection scales, to categorize parenting into four quadrants: affectionate constraint, optimal parenting, affectionless control and neglectful parenting. The results were compared between two groups, one of which consisted of males ages 25 to 45, representing the older generation, and the other consisted of males ages 18 to 22, representing the younger generation. According to the data, the older generation experienced more affectionless control relationships with their fathers compared to the younger generation who experienced more optimal relationships with their fathers. These findings support the hypothesis that there is a generational difference in the father-son relationships.