Publication Date

Spring 2021


School of Health Sciences




anthraquinone, halogenation of deactivated compounds, halogenation of aromatic compounds, chemotherapeutics


Organic Chemistry


While the bromination of aromatic compounds is a well-researched topic, AQ and hydroxy substituted AQ derivatives, with two carbonyl groups acting as strong deactivators for electrophilic substitution, are notoriously difficult to brominate.11 Although there are well defined ways to brominate an AQ or hydroxy substituted AQ dating back to 1921,12 in order to synthesize more complex AQ derivatives, a method for halogenating AQ derivatives already bonded to more complicated or unstable functional groups is needed in order for the compound to carry out desirable activities. This represents an area of great need in research. The purpose of this paper therefore is three-fold. First, it sheds light on the properties of AQ and AQ derivatives, explaining previous uses of it. Next, reactions with a brominated 1-mono-substituted AQ to add another functional group without compromising the AQ derivative itself are summarized. Finally, various methods of performing such a reaction are evaluated, and experimental findings of some attempts performed in lab at Liberty University Department of Biology and Chemistry are reported.