Publication Date

Fall 11-21-2020


School of Health Sciences




freshwater ecology, crayfish, crayfish ecology, ecotoxicology, crayfish ecotoxicology, pesticides, pesticides in freshwater ecosystems, Atrazine, Glyphosate, 2, 4-D, lotic ecosystems, freshwater pollutants, herbicides in the environment, herbicides, crayfish hepatopancreas, hepatopancreas, sublethal effects of pesticides


Freshwater systems connected to agricultural practices can be prone to having pollutants (e.g. pesticides) introduced from runoff. These pollutants can have damaging effects on the biotic community assemblages throughout these systems. Low doses of pesticides can negatively affect non-target organisms, such as macroinvertebrates, by compromising their metabolic function and overall health. This project expands on how pesticide pollution impacts freshwater ecosystems by exposing crayfish to environmentally relevant combined concentrations of three common herbicides (Atrazine, Glyphosate, and 2,4-D) and documenting sublethal effects through hepatopancreas cell counts. Results reveal negative sublethal impacts of common herbicides on crayfish, and by extension indicate the possible impact the herbicides can have on other non-target organisms after exposure to herbicides.