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The following study addresses Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y management paradigm as applied toward carnival executives' (CEs) communication to employees. 15 CEs were interviewed and elicited narratives that held either Theory X or Theory Y paradigm. From the narratives it was discovered that most CEs held a Theory Y paradigm toward employees. However, it was also discovered that the Theory Y paradigm may be a result of increased use of foreign labor or a swing in the carnival industry itself.
Johnston, Ashley, "Contradiction and the Carnival: A study of McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y framework applied to communication within a carnival setting." (2007). Poster Session and Research Presentation Forum. 2.