Date of this Version

April 2007

Document Type



Poster presentation at 2007 Liberty University Graduate Center for Research and Evaluation forum. Advisers were - Dr. Faith Mullen, Dr. William Mullen, and Dr. Cliff Kelly.


The following study addresses Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y management paradigm as applied toward carnival executives' (CEs) communication to employees. 15 CEs were interviewed and elicited narratives that held either Theory X or Theory Y paradigm. From the narratives it was discovered that most CEs held a Theory Y paradigm toward employees. However, it was also discovered that the Theory Y paradigm may be a result of increased use of foreign labor or a swing in the carnival industry itself.