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Degree Granted


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Regent University


This study relates Hambrick and Mason’s (1984) Proposition 21 of the Upper Echelons Theory (UET) to the texts of I and II Timothy. Proposition 21 of the UET states, “In turbulent environments, team heterogeneity will be positively associated with profitability” (p. 203). This study affirms the validity of this proposition within the heterogeneous leadership context of Paul and Timothy as seen in the turbulent environment described in I and II Timothy. After defining three key terms (heterogeneity, turbulent environment, profitability) of the UET, this study provides the definitions and rationale for translating these terms into a ministry context. This study supports a heterogeneous leadership relationship of Paul and Timothy by providing a brief sketch of Paul and Timothy’s personal background (birthplace, family, education, conversion experience, age) and past leadership experiences. This study supports that Paul and Timothy were functioning within a turbulent environment by providing a basic explanation of the nature of the heresies within I and II Timothy including a brief discussion of the identity of the heretics. The injunctions set forth for the Ephesian church and its conduct afterwards provide supporting evidence of the profitability aspect of Proposition 21. A summary of the study, benefits from this study, and suggestions for future research conclude this study.