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This thesis was completed for a Masters of Arts in Ethnomusicology at Bethel University.


This mixed-methods research studies inclusive worship of multiethnic Protestant congregations across Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. I used a model of worship based upon Liesch‘s characteristics of heavenly worship, examining how it applies to the multiethnic church. I observed worship services and rehearsals at Minneapolis Multicultural Church to determine how worship is constructed at this multiethnic church that became multiethnic due to changing neighborhood demographics.

In the second phase of research I surveyed multiethnic church pastors and worship leaders to determine attitudes and practices towards inclusive worship. I found a possible connection between multiethnic churches that start through inward and outward motivations and churches that have experienced the most change in music style, signaling inclusive worship. Additionally, the gospel music genre shows promise as an inclusive worship genre.