School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Sharon B Hähnlen


foreign language, multiple intelligences, online learning, student attitude, survey, traditional learning


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Higher Education | Higher Education and Teaching | Instructional Media Design


This study examined students' perceptions towards online language learning and face-to-face learning. A survey of multiple intelligences (McClelland & Conti, 2008) combined with an Online Learning Readiness Survey (OLRS) survey (Dray, Lowenthal, Miszkiewicz, Ruiz-Primo, & Marczynski, 2011) was distributed to 2,177 community college and university students in order to measure the strength of each of the nine intelligences each student possessed, as well as their perceptions of readiness for online language learning. Student preference for online/hybrid versus traditional language class was also considered. The three research questions involved an investigation of: 1) the differences between students who attended an online/hybrid foreign or second language class and those who attended a traditional foreign or second language class based on their level of online readiness, 2) the participants' levels of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences as predictors of online readiness, and 3) the differences between those participants who preferred hybrid, online foreign or second language classes and those who preferred traditional foreign language classes based on their level of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. Only student attendance in an online, hybrid, or traditional class as compared to online readiness for learning was found to be significant.