School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Daniel Baer


Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency, Cooperative Learning, Differentiated Instruction, English Language Learner, Sheltered Instruction Operation Protocol (SIOP), Vocabulary


Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Methods | Elementary Education and Teaching | Teacher Education and Professional Development


This qualitative hermeneutical phenomenological study was designed to describe general education elementary teachers' perceptions of effective instructional strategies, methods, and models of instruction to enhance the learning of core content curriculum of the English Language Learners (ELLs) in the classroom. Through questionnaires and interviews, data was collected that described general education elementary teachers' perceptions regarding the need for instructional strategies, methods, and models to assist ELL students in learning. Challenges, frustrations, and successes were reported as teachers reflected on the process in which they make the decisions to use particular instructional strategies, methods, and models. The results of this study provided participants' perceptions of effective strategies, methods, and models as a basis for general education elementary teachers in United States classrooms and were intended to be used in instructional content areas for all students, particularly ELL students. These results also suggested the importance for general education teacher programs to include coursework specific for ELL instruction that can be effective for instruction in the general education classroom. Finally, this study also suggested the importance for educational systems to provide professional development focused specifically on providing effective instructional practices for ELLs in the general education classroom and core content areas.