School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Jose Puga

Primary Subject Area

Education, General; Education, Secondary; Education, Curriculum and Instruction; Education, Sociology of; Education, Tests and Measurements


alternative education, dropout prevention, End of Course Tests, facilitating graduation, nonverbal immediacy


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Educational Sociology


Meeting the needs of all students is a continuing challenge for educators. Schools across the nation are designing programs to foster student achievement and graduation. Alternative education programs are gaining in popularity among students who have not succeeded in traditional schools and would previously have dropped out of school. It is essential that teachers connect with students so that students believe teachers care about them and their education. In this quantitative study, a significant correlation was found between students' perception of teacher immediacy, determined with the Nonverbal Immediacy Scale - Observer Report (NIS-O), and their rate of academic progress as measured by the number of hours he/she was academically engaged in earning a Carnegie unit. A significant correlation was not found between teacher immediacy and a student's End of Course Test (EOCT) score. Spearman correlations of each of the two variables of interest with individual items of the NIS-O showed significant negatives correlations of the hours required to earn a Carnegie unit with several survey items.