April 2008


Ellen L Black

Primary Subject Area

Education, Elementary; Education, Reading


reading, elementary, urban schools, Christian schools, Philadelphia


This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Foundations & Frameworks (F&F), an instructional program emphasizing reading comprehension, on fourth and fifth grade students' reading achievement, as measured by the Stanford Achievement Test and the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test. Seven urban Christian schools in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, participated in the study. A causal-comparative analysis was conducted of reading comprehension and vocabulary achievement between F&F schools and comparison schools. A pre-experimental pretest and posttest analysis of achievement and a comparison of actual growth to expected growth were also conducted in F&F schools. No significant differences in achievement were found between F&F schools and comparison schools. However, pretest and posttest results in F&F schools yielded significant differences, with moderate effect sizes. Results were mixed in the comparisons of actual and expected growth, with no significant differences for fourth grade, but with highly significant differences for fifth grade.