School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Judy Shoemaker

Primary Subject Area

Education, Elementary; Education, Early Childhood


benchmark assessments, empowerment, literacy, mathematics, progress monitoring, Response to Intervention


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research


Response to Intervention (RtI) is a data-driven process that supports the academic needs of students through targeted interventions to address specific identified areas of weakness. When implemented effectively, RtI aids students at the onset of learning concerns and can remediate learning problems which have, in the past, led to students being classified as learning disabled. Few studies have recognized the role of teachers at the frontlines in implementing RtI, and many teachers are struggling with the complicated RtI process. Literacy and mathematics are the academic focuses for RtI in this study due to their importance for success in school and later as young people enter society beyond their K-12 years. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of teacher empowerment on the implementation of RtI by examining teachers' experiences and measuring the students' progress on benchmark tests. Six teachers involved in the RtI implementation at Target Schools A and B were interviewed and observed, and their progress-monitoring data was examined. In this study, the effect of teacher empowerment was documented as the teachers began to take an active role in the RtI implementation at the school level by using their strengths in the classroom to lead the school staff in professional development to improve instruction in the RtI process.