Helms School of Government


Doctor of Philosophy in Criminal Justice (PhD)


Jared L. Perry


sex, gender, gender gap, crime, violent offenses, weapon, victim, age


Public Affairs, Public Policy and Public Administration


Violent offenses are part of the history of humankind, and as such, both male and female violent offenders have perpetrated these acts, often with gender differences between male and female offenders present. As more women leave the home and enter the workplace, the gap in gender roles has narrowed, so it follows that this narrowing may also be reflected in the actions of violent offenders. Although there are various explanations for the narrowing of the gender gap in crime, understanding the differences between male and female offenders can help inform gender-based interventions. To address this idea, the type of weapon present during a violent offense and the demographic variables of the victim, including age and sex, were examined for differences between male and female violent offenders. Furthermore, these variables were examined for changes in the differences between male and female violent offenders over time. To provide a quantitative analysis, data collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation through the National Incident-Based Reporting System was analyzed using SPSS. Although this data is not yet nationally representative, it remains a robust source of information that provides useful support for conclusions, even with its limitations. The analyses found that there were significant relationships between offender gender and weapon present, offender gender and victim age, and offender gender and victim sex. Additionally, the strength of these relationships increased over time.