School of Education
Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)
blended learning, virtual learning, FitnessGram®, COVID-19, health-related fitness components
Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods
Caulder, Frances E., "The Effect of Blended Learning and Virtual Learning on Student Performance in High School Physical Education" (2023). Doctoral Dissertations and Projects. 4816.
The relationship between blended, virtual, and traditional learning on student performance can significantly affect the future of physical education programs’ curriculum and instructional methods. This causal-comparative research design study examines the difference in student performance measured by FitnessGram® scores between ninth-grade female physical education students who participate in an all-online/virtual learning instructional model, a blended learning instructional model, and a traditional face-to-face learning instructional model. Using a random sample of 143 students from six physical education classes from two high schools in a rural South Carolina school district, a one-way ANOVA was conducted to examine the difference in student performance measured by the FitnessGram® based on learning models. The results were not statistically significant, suggesting that there is no significant difference in student performance as measured by FitnessGram® scores among female ninth-grade physical education students who participate in an all-online/virtual learning instructional model, a blended learning instructional model, and a traditional face-to-face learning instructional model. Recommendations for future research will suggest a larger sample size, including male students, and further investigation identifying which student population benefits most from virtual physical education.