School of Education


Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)


Laura Jones


Intervention provider, interventionist, Tier 3, Multi-Tiered System of Supports, MTSS, virtual learning, in-person learning, school closure, COVID-19, early reading, foundational reading skills, natural disaster, infectious disease, pandemic, self-efficacy, social learning, reading difficulty, Vygotskian theory of learning, Bandura’s self-efficacy theory, educational partnerships, big ideas of reading, phenomenological, qualitative


Education | Educational Leadership


The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences of Tier 3 early reading intervention providers at the Urban Independent School District in Texas three years after a school closure. The central research question was, what are the lived experiences of Tier 3 early reading intervention providers in the Urban Independent School district three years after a school closure? Sub-questions explored early reading intervention providers’ beliefs, attitudes, mental states, and actions three years after a school closure. This study was guided by two central theories: the Vygotskian sociocultural theory of human learning and Bandura’s self-efficacy theory. Moustakas’ transcendental phenomenological model was used to identify the phenomenon’s essence. Data were collected and triangulated using participant interviews, letter writing, and open-ended questionnaires. Data were analyzed and synthesized into six themes and 17 subthemes. Participants believe that students were negatively impacted academically and socially by the Covid-19-related school closure but generally have a positive attitude about changes implemented by UISD as a response to the school closure. Upon returning to in-person learning, participants expressed that their mental state was in a state of anxiety and tension as the needs of students were significant. The actions of intervention providers had to be intentional in meeting the needs of the students. Overall, intervention providers at UISD want a systematic approach to interventions and believe their work is essential. This study brings an awareness of the importance of the role of Tier 3 intervention providers after a school closure.