School of Behavioral Sciences


Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology (PhD)


Gilbert Franco


self-leadership, entrepreneur, success, strategies, self-influence, behavioral, cognitive


Leadership Studies | Psychology


Self-leadership refers to a self-influence process consisting of behavioral and cognitive strategies intended to improve personal effectiveness (Neck & Houghton, 2006). These strategies fall into three categories – behavior-focused strategies, constructive thought pattern strategies, and natural reward strategies. Research on self-leadership has shown evidence of positive outcomes such as job performance and job satisfaction (Frayne & Geringer, 2000; Harari et al., 2021; Prussia et al., 1998). Due to the variety of ways entrepreneurs measure success, and based on the numerous desirable outcomes of self-leadership strategies, it is important to explore these strategies as potential predictors of entrepreneur success. In a review of the literature, research to examine the three types of self-leadership strategies as potential predictors of entrepreneur success was not found. D’Intino et al. (2007) reviewed the literature on self-leadership to suggest that these strategies can help entrepreneurs achieve success; however, an empirical study to validate a predictive relationship was not identified from the literature review. The purpose of this quantitative survey study was to explore relationships between self-leadership strategies and subjective measures of success in entrepreneurs. Participants with at least three years of experience and in an entrepreneurial or business leadership role at the time of participation were recruited through the LinkedIn group, Survey Exchange, and SurveyCircle, and data were collected via online survey questionnaires. Implications include an understanding of specific strategies that are more likely to influence positive outcomes most important to those in entrepreneur and business leadership roles.