School of Education


Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)


Susan Stanley


literacy acquisition, Raz-Kids, computer-based instruction, Response to Intervention, Abraham Maslow, Lev Vygotsky, quantitative, quasi-experimental


Curriculum and Instruction | Education


The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest, control group design study was to investigate the effects of Response to Intervention (RtI) and computer-based programs on addressing literacy acquisition skills. This study is important because there is an inordinate number of students who are designated as requiring special education services due to a lack of reading achievement. This study is significant because the success of student achievement, and promotion from one grade to the next, hinges on students’ reading ability. This study sample was drawn from 55 first and 55 second-grade students from a Title One school in the upper state of South Carolina. The control group of first and second-grade students completed a pre and post-test using the Measure of Academic Progress English Language Arts assessment (MAP-ELA). The treatment group received computer-based supplemental literacy instruction, and the control group received traditional reading instruction. An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) test was used to determine if there was a difference in literacy scores between students who received RtI through a supplemental computer-based program, Raz-Kids, as measured through MAP-ELA testing when controlling for the pretest. All Assumptions of ANCOVA were tested and met, concluding that the study resulted in no significant difference between students who were exposed to treatment as compared to the students who were in the control groups. Further research is recommended. Recommendations include ensuring each class is heterogeneously mixed, treatment is utilized 15-20 minutes each day, every test taker uses their time efficiently, there is a co-proctor in each group taking MAP-ELA, and there is an extra researcher to monitor the appropriate implementation of Raz-Kids.