School of Education


Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)


Treg Hopkins


technology integration, middle school, teachers




This quantitative causal-comparative study investigated the effect of middle school teachers’ perceptions of students’ socioeconomic status on their attitudes toward technology. The study was based on the theory of social constructivism and the will, skill, and tool model of technology integration to investigate teachers’ attitudes toward technology. This study advanced the body of knowledge by examining the connection between pedagogical beliefs and teachers’ attitudes toward technology, the use of technology with students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, and the need for more research on technology use by teachers at the middle school level. The research question exploring the possibility of a difference in teachers’ attitudes toward technology among middle school teachers who minimally, somewhat, and predominantly serve students from low socioeconomic backgrounds, as determined by the state and United States Department of Education, was measured by the Teachers' Attitudes Toward Computers-Information Computer Technology Questionnaire (TAC/TAICT) using responses from 126 middle school teachers in Virginia. The researcher collected data through digital completion of the questionnaire and analyzed it to determine significant differences. A one-way ANOVA did not show significant differences in overall attitudes among the three groups.

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