School of Behavioral Sciences


Doctor of Education in Community Care and Counseling (EdD)


Mario Garcia


posttraumatic stress, childhood trauma, community violence, perceptions, building leaders


Education | Social Work


This dissertation involved summarizing and critically evaluating principals’ views on students who have been traumatized and the treatment these students receive as a result of these perceptions. The main focus was to ascertain whether administrators’ upbringing has a mediating effect on the treatment of students being educated in an urban community. The central question focused on the views and perceptions of building leaders raised in urban, suburban, or rural areas and the impact of their perception of urban students who have experienced trauma. Sub-questions were designed to uncover the relationship between the building administrator’s life experiences and perceptions of disciplinary practices, the labeling of students needing special behavioral education, and the leader’s satisfaction while working with these students. The study was designed to determine whether implicit bias or negative perceptions affect administrators’ thoughts on suspensions, expulsions, arrests, and educational success. thoughts on suspensions, expulsions, arrests, and educational success. A quantitative research study using a survey was conducted to gather information from the administrators on their perceptions concerning discipline, special education, and career satisfaction. The results showed there were significant discrepancies between urban-raised administrators and their suburban counterparts.