Rawlings School of Divinity


Doctor of Philosophy in Theology and Apologetics (PhD)


Donald W. Holdridge


Theology, Biblical Studies, Kingdom, Israel, Covenant, Bible, Old Testament, New Testament, Kingdom of God, Unconditional Covenants, Abrahamic Covenant, Palestinian/Land Covenant, Davidic Covenant, New Covenant


Christianity | Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion


The Bible consistently presents one common theme: the kingdom of God. Biblical theology focuses on God’s faithfulness, wisdom, and purpose in the process of redemption. The Old Testament expresses the firm belief that God will surely fulfill His covenants and reign forever. The Old Testament prophets believed that the Messiah would come for judgment and salvation. They consistently prophesied the birth and reign of the Messiah, which connects the Old and New Testaments. There is a continuity between the Old and New Testaments. The promises made to Israel in the Old Testament will be fulfilled for Israel, not the church. Although God has never said that He has abandoned Israel, some scholars exclude Israel from His salvation plan. Since the study of Israel is an essential area of biblical theology, various interpretation methodologies address the issue of Israel. The present research explores the essential principles of the restoration of Israel and the significance of Israel’s unconditional covenants. These covenants are the key ideas of the Bible and reveal the faithfulness of God’s promises. The faithfulness of God’s promises is revealed by the consistent flow of the Old and New Testaments. The Bible is a record of God’s work of salvation, revealing the creation of the world, the fall of man, and a long history of redemption. It concludes with the end of the world with judgment and complete salvation. The Bible includes the stories and covenants of God that He loves all people in the world and offers salvation beyond time, space, language, and culture. Every promise in the Bible begins in the Old Testament and is completed in the New Testament. This dissertation examines the consistency of the kingdom of God by addressing Israel’s unconditional covenants and their fulfillment. Therefore, this research demonstrates how these covenants support God’s kingdom in the Bible.