School of Behavioral Sciences


Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology (PhD)


Kelly Gorbett


development, adverse, toxic, stress, early childhood, intervention




Experiences in life are crucial in determining how one’s development will progress throughout their lifespan, with many of the factors occurring in early childhood. The factors include but are not limited to adversities experienced at an early age, toxic stress, and childhood trauma. Childhood adversities can impact a child’s cognitive development and biological systems. Children living in adverse situations are at a greater risk of not reaching their full developmental potential in life. Although previous research and literature discuss and demonstrate the cruciality of early childhood interventions to mitigate adverse childhood experiences, gaps in the research exist for individual interventions, combinations of interventions, and how they affect childhood development. The purpose of the study was to examine the difference between single-type self-reported early intervention strategies, multiple self-reported early intervention strategies, and self-reported developmental progress in children who have experienced childhood adversities. Participants consisted of 88 individuals assigned to two groups: children who received a single type of early intervention strategy and children who received more than one type of early intervention strategy. A quantitative correlational study was conducted, and a Pearson’s r statistical test was used to analyze the data. The results demonstrated a significant relationship between the number of interventions and developmental progress. Findings suggest that the number of interventions positively correlates with higher scores of developmental progress.

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