School of Education


Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)


Susan Stanley


attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, asymmetric tonic neck reflex, physical activity, integration exercises, inattentiveness, detectability


Education | Special Education and Teaching


The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to understand the difference in the posttest detectability scores, as measured by the Conners Kiddie Continuous Performance Test 2nd edition, among early childhood students participating in various activity types, including ATNR integration exercises, running exercises, or sedentary work, when controlling for pretest detectability scores at schools in rural north Texas using a nonequivalent control-group, pretest-posttest design. This study built on the theory of structural cognitive modifiability and helped to expand research regarding the impact of a specific type of physical activity, namely asymmetric tonic neck reflex integration exercises, on focal inattentiveness, a symptom of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The historical background of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is discussed, as well as the implications for society if additional action is not taken to mediate individuals’ symptoms, regardless of if those symptoms meet the diagnostic threshold. This study helped to provide insight on potentially useful classroom management strategies that are sufficiently succinct to be utilized in hectic classrooms and expanded the theoretical knowledge surrounding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The sample consisted of 69 students, aged four to seven, from two schools in rural Texas. Students were given a pre-test, participated in an activity daily at school for three weeks, and given a post-test. A one-way ANCOVA was used to analyze the data. The study showed that, while there was a greater overall improvement in the treatment group, there was no statistically significant difference in the detectability scores of the treatment and control groups (p = .141). The author discusses the implication of the results and calls for additional research into the exploration of ATNR integration.