School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Susan K. Stanley


achievement, specific learning disabilities, virtual reality, augmented reality


Educational Administration and Supervision


The purpose of this causal-comparative study was used to analyze the hypothesized differences among inclusion teachers’ sense of self efficacy (TSES) based on their highest level of degree completion (bachelor’s, master's, master's plus). In an era of educational reform, students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) continue to lag behind regular education counterparts in all schooling environments. Schools in the southwestern region of Tennessee are now servicing a growing number of SLD-diagnosed students with a paucity of research addressing teacher's impact on SLD literacy scores. Participants in the study comprised 59 English language arts (ELA) inclusion teachers in 12 public middle school settings. To address this gap in the research, data were examined using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Survey Monkey and TSES long form was used to collect demographic and professional information. Results of the one-way ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences among inclusions teachers with different levels of education. Future recommendations for research in virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) can enhance instructional practices while building teacher's confidence to motivate students' interest in ELA achievement in all public-school learning environments.