School of Behavioral Sciences


Doctor of Education in Community Care and Counseling (EdD)


Richard Green

Primary Subject Area

Psychology, General


Black female ex-offenders, reentry, intersectionality, probation officers


Counseling | Social and Behavioral Sciences


The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of probation officers who provided supervision in a reintegration program for post-release Black female offenders concerning their efforts to reduce recidivism. The feminist theory guided this research study, as it shed light on the barriers encountered by female offenders in the United States and expounded how they were specifically unique from the barriers faced by male offenders. The research questions were: what are probation officers’ perceptions of how reentry programs contribute to Black female ex-offenders’ successful transition back into the community, what are the probation officers’ perceptions of how reentry programs best serve the specific needs of Black female ex-offenders during the community supervision, and how do coping resources prepare Black female ex-offenders to transition into society. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The sample size consisted of eight participants who supervised Black female ex-offenders and had been probation officers in the Southeast United States. The seven steps of van Kaam’s methods, as modified by Moustakas, were followed. Through analyses of the data, three major themes emerged: (a) Community Resources, (b) Social Support Systems, (c) and A Seat at the Table, and provided the foundation for implications for policy and practice, as well as recommendations for future research.

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