School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Alan Wimberley


1:1 technology, causal comparative, achievement, middle school




The purpose of this study was to understand which arrangement of technology provided the best results for middle school students. Educators and schools are trying to ensure that students are prepared for jobs that currently do not exist. Previous research has been conducted to look at the achievement of students; however, very little has been done to look at these levels at the middle school level in comparison to other schools in the same district. This quantitative causal comparative study sought to understand if differences exist between two groups of middle school students. One group participated in a 1:1 technology initiative in their classes while the other group did not participate in the 1:1 initiative. The instrumentation for the study was an achievement test, NWEA-MAP. The study utilized a large urban school district in a metropolitan area. Two middle schools were selected to participate in the study. From the population, the two schools were placed into separate groups, utilizing all scores applicable, while controlling for the prior test’s achievement scores. A One-Way ANCOVA showed significant differences with small effect sizes in dependent variables from pretest to posttest. Limitations were acknowledged and implications were noted. Recommendations for future research were made.

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