School of Education


Doctor of Philosophy in Education (PhD)


Leldon Nichols


cultural intelligence, cultural orientations, horizontal collectivism, motivational cultural intelligence, higher education


Education | Educational Leadership


A predictive correlational study was conducted to determine predictive capabilities between collegiate educational leader’s horizontal collectivism scores and their motivational cultural intelligence scores. While researchers have used cultural intelligence (CQ) and cultural orientations (CO) as theoretical frameworks in previous studies, this study relies heavily on Robert Bandura’s social learning theory (SLT). The differentiation in theoretical framework indicates that a group’s social norms, religious customs, and their cultural constructs are learned through direct experience within their communal upbringing or learned through observing others. Therefore, just as these cultural responses to external stimuli were learned, they can be unlearned, and relearned to fit appropriately to promote inclusivity in a setting that encompasses diversity. For this study, 62 participants were selected using judgement sampling through 22 different four-year colleges and universities within the Eastern region of the United States. Participants took part in one survey that contained two electronic instruments: Individualism and Collectivism Scale (INDCOL); and the Electronic Cultural Intelligence Scale (E-CQS). Following data collection, the researcher used a multiple linear regression to predict overall HC scores from intrinsic motivation (IM), extrinsic motivation (EM), and self-efficacy to adjust (SA) scores. Results revealed that overall EM was statistically significant to OHC scores. Further research is required with measuring CQ to CO within the context of higher education.