School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


DJ Mattson


inclusion, self-efficacy, professional development, instructional coach, preparation, support




The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to determine if there was a difference in teacher efficacy between general education teachers who are coached by a special education instructional coach and general education teachers who have not been coached by a special education instructional coach. Federal mandates, such as the Every Student Succeeds Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, guarantee that students with disabilities are included in the general education classroom. General education teachers need to be qualified to teach in an inclusive classroom, yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that they do not feel prepared or effective. Currently, very little information exists on special education instructional coaching. Student achievement is directly impacted by teacher efficacy; therefore, the results of this study were necessary for considering strategies ensuring as many students as possible achieve at a high rate. Bandura’s social cognitive theory and the central tenet of self-efficacy in that theory informed this research. This study utilized a causal-comparative design to examine the Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) Scale scores. A random sample of 137 general education teachers was surveyed through an online version of the TEIP. An independent-samples t-test was used to analyze the scores for overall self-efficacy as well as collaboration. The Wilcoxon test was used to analyze scores for inclusive pedagogy and classroom management because they did not follow a normal distribution. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in aggregate efficacy or the subfactors of inclusive pedagogy, classroom management, and collaboration.

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