School of Music


Doctor of Worship Studies (DWS)


Leon Neto


Kerygma, Didache, Koinonia, Essence of Worship, COVID-19 Pandemic, Online Worship


Religious Thought, Theology and Philosophy of Religion


The purpose of this study is to review the current needs regarding online worship that were conducted by Korean ministers in the Northern Virginia area under the COVID-19 pandemic and thereby supplement the found needs through establishing a theological basis and a summary of essential elements of worship that should be applied to online worshiping groups. Thirty-three (N = 33) Korean ministers in the Northern Virginia area who conducted online worship under COVID-19 participated in this survey. Results showed that the dominant need in online worship was an education on the essence of worship followed by technical support and ways to interact with the congregation. To supplement the participant's needs, qualitative research was conducted, which included illustrations of biblical principles of worship, parallel analysis between the exilic period and COVID-19 pandemic, biblical examinations on preserved essential worship elements in the exilic period, insights from online education, benefits of family worship, and facets of online worship under COVID-19. As a result of the qualitative research, the legitimacy of practicing biblical worship elements such as Kerygma, Didache, and Koinonia was verified. It was found that these elements are to be emphasized and practiced in circumstances when the congregation cannot gather for in-person worship.