School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Gail Collins


informational text, reading, comprehension, strategies


Educational Methods | Reading and Language


The purpose of this multi-case study was to examine the practices of fourth- and fifth-grade teachers in Title 1 schools who use specific reading strategies to teach the comprehension of informational text. One theory that guided this study was Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory focusing on the zone of proximal development as it applies to what a learner can do with and without help, and his concept of learning and development, whereby a child does not develop independently of his or her environment. In addition, Bandura’s social cognitive theory served as a guiding theory for this study. The design was a multiple case study of 11 teacher participants in Grades 4 and 5 from various Title 1 schools. Data collection included individual interviews, teacher focus groups, and document analysis. Data were analyzed directly through the interpretation of cases embedded within each data type across cases using Stake’s multiple case analysis methods. Trustworthiness was established by the triangulation of data, expert review of data analysis, and member checks. The study found that teachers use a variety of informational text strategies currently found in the literature. The findings also revealed that teachers use several strategies, such as modeling and think aloud, within the close reading strategy. Teachers also reported using writing to help students understand text organization and questioning to determine background knowledge of topics.