School of Behavioral Sciences


Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education and Supervision (PhD)


Fred Volk


Intimacy, Singles, Pornography, Loneliness, Religious Involvement


Counseling | Education


Previous research has explored the relationship between religious involvement, loneliness, and pornography use. For some, pornography use can be used as a coping mechanism to overcome feelings of loneliness. This pornography use is especially problematic for those who are religious, as this use contradicts their convictions and beliefs and has been shown to have many negative outcomes. To date, little research has focused on the specific growing population of singles who can be more prone to loneliness due to the lack of a romantic relationship. To rectify this gap, this study seeks to explore the ability an emotionally intimate relationship has to reduce loneliness and pornography use for the religious single. An online survey was used to recruit participants (N = 95) who were single (not in a romantic relationship), religious (believed in God), and had used pornography in the last six months. The desired outcome is to understand what condition or in what way an intimate relationship moderates both the direct relationship between religious involvement and pornography use and the indirect mediated relationship through loneliness. While results showed no significance in either the mediating or moderating conditional relationships, there were significant direct relationships between intimacy, loneliness, and pornography use. Implications suggest that an intimate relationship for religious singles may be able to reduce feelings of loneliness and pornography use.