School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Joseph F. Fontanella, Jr.


Teacher Efficacy, Behavior Management, Trauma-informed, Teacher Attitude, Teacher Behavior, TIC


Education | Educational Leadership


The purpose of this causal-comparative study was to examine whether there is a difference in teacher self-efficacy (TSE) for educators who participate in, receive training for, and work in a trauma-informed environment (TIC) versus teachers who do not. Trauma-informed education is a growing trend in K-12 academic settings. But, no known study has shown whether working in a trauma-informed environment has an impact on teacher behaviors and attitudes. The results of this study did not find any statistically significant difference in survey responses from middle school teachers. The researcher used the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) to collect data on efficacy scores from 178 teachers in rural, urban, and suburban districts across six schools. A one-way multivariate of analysis of variance (MANOVA) did not reveal any statistically significant difference in scores. The results may indicate that TIC training does not impact teacher efficacy or that such training helps educators build resiliency to endure traumatic environments. The investigator recommends more research on TIC and teacher behaviors. A conclusion from this causal-comparative study is that since results were similar across three school districts, there may be a state-wide control that accounts for the current condition of TSE for middle school educators. Conversely, people who stay in education may have higher resiliency skills than people in other professions, making the environment less likely to predict teacher behaviors and attitudes.