School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Michelle Barthlow


1:1 Initiative, 21st-century Learning, Analytical Thinking, Differentiated Instruction, Flipped Classroom, Technology




The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the 1:1 initiative on school-wide performance level percentages among secondary school students in the social sciences. The 1:1 initiative, where every student has a laptop, tablet, or portable electronic device, is a part of the 21st-century learning model. Twenty-first century learning is a model that teaches students to thrive in today’s society with critical thinking skills and digital literacy. The dependent variable of school-wide performance level percentages in social sciences was monitored using a longitudinal, descriptive design. The population sample for this study consisted of mostly Caucasian students in secondary schools, with very low cultural diversity. Three schools had implemented a 1:1 initiative program in their social sciences departments, and three schools had not. The study used secondary data collected from these high schools over a time frame of three years, 2013-14 through 2015-16, consisting of standardized testing data in U.S. History. The results from the application of the 1:1 initiative were compared with the results from the previous years over a period of three years, starting with a baseline of the year prior to the 1:1 initiative. Results from comparative non-1:1 schools were then analyzed alongside the 1:1 schools. Academic performance among U.S. History students in the 1:1 initiative did not show that the 1:1 initiative had a positive effect on school-wide performance level percentages in social sciences. The results were inclusive. Suggestions for future research include expanding the number of years in the longitudinal study, investigating schools in other regions of the country, and studying schools with more diverse populations.

Included in

Education Commons