School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Anita Fauber


Hands on Equations, Math Manipulative, Math, Special Education, Math Achievement


Education | Educational Leadership


Each year, ninth-grade students across the United States of America fail to meet the national standards in mathematics. Students struggle to grasp the concepts needed to produce correct answers to math problems. Ninth grade students with disabilities, especially in the southeastern region of the United States, consistently fail the math portion of the Georgia Milestones Test. As a response to this problem in Georgia, Hands-On Equations by Henry Borenson represents a possible solution for many students failing to meet the standard in ninth grade mathematics. The purpose of this quantitative causal-comparative study was to examine the difference between the mathematics achievement of ninth-grade students with and without disabilities in a high school in Southeastern Georgia who received instruction with Hands-On Equations versus those who received instruction without the use of Hands-On Equations. The data used were historical data from the 2016 school year. One group of students participated in instruction using Hands-On Equations while another group received traditional teaching methods without the use of the Hands-On Equations. The participating schools were urban schools located in the Southeastern part of Georgia. Most of the students were African American, and the schools were 100% free lunch. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) generated comparative data. The results related to Hypothesis H01 and H03 indicated that there was a significant difference in the mathematics achievement scores for ninth-grade students with or without disabilities who received instruction with Hands-on Equations. However, results related to hypothesis H02 indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mathematics achievement scores for ninth-grade students who did or did not receive instruction using Hands-on Equations.