School of Education


Doctor of Education in Curriculum & Instruction (EdD)


Russell Claxton


Reading Disability, Adolescent Reading, Reading Impairment


Education | Language and Literacy Education


The current educational system in American schools is failing to meet the literacy needs of impaired readers in grades four through eight due to inadequate or delayed intervention programs after third grade, which fail to incorporate cognitive and metacognitive skills taught simultaneously over extended periods of time. This causal-comparative research study was designed to investigate the inclusion of these skills in individual and group settings in a pre-/post-test format, while controlling for the pre-test, using NILD strategies and methodology. The purpose of this study was to determine if a significant difference in reading achievement existed between the two groups when simultaneous cognitive/metacognitive instruction was administered to reading impaired students in fourth through eighth grades over one school year. The independent variable consisted of group intervention (n = 152), and the dependent variable was one-one-one instruction (n = 88). Archival data from NILD included pre- and post-test standard scores from five reading subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III or IV for the 2014-2018 school years to determine if there was a difference in academic reading achievement between groups. Prior to intervention, all students (N = 240) received standardized academic and/or psychological testing for diagnoses of a reading disability. Assumption tests were conducted, and the data was analyzed using a One-Way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). The results showed no significant difference between achievement for students who had received NILD treatment in group settings as opposed to one-on-one settings where F(1, 237) = .034, p = .854. Therefore, the researcher failed to reject the null hypothesis.