School of Education


Doctor of Education in Educational Leadership (EdD)


Gary Kuhne


Job Embeddedness, 2 × 2 ANOVA, Higher Education Employment


Education | Higher Education


The purpose of this study was to explore the possibility of difference in the job embeddedness attitudes of full-time and part-time professors, and possible differences in job embeddedness attitudes between professors at community colleges and state universities. This research project focused on Criminology and Criminal Justice departments. The dependent variables were on-the-job and off-the-job embeddedness, and the independent variables were school type and employment status. The timely study was based on the recent trend toward hiring adjunct professors in lieu of tenured professors at community colleges and universities. The literature review identified a lacuna in the embeddedness literature within the education context, and more especially in higher education. Embedded figures theory, field theory, social exchange theory, affect theory, job satisfaction, employee retention, and intention to leave were all instrumental in the evolution of job embeddedness. This quantitative study employed a causal-comparative design to examine the two research questions. A convenience sample of 148 volunteer full-time and part-time professors/instructors participated from a population of approximately 230-260 professors. All professors were asked to complete an online questionnaire. There were 14 community colleges and 12 state universities in one state who agreed to participate. Data was collected online via Survey Monkey and uploaded into SPSS for analysis. Each research question used a 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA. The two-way ANOVA examined the three null-hypotheses all at once for each research question. A relationship was discovered between full-time and part-time professors with off-the-job embeddedness, and this null (H05) was rejected at p < .001.