School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Reginald S Kimball


21st Century Classrooms, Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) Theory, Flipped Classroom, Learner-Centered Instruction, Phenomenology, Qualitative Research


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Educational Psychology | Other Education


The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe secondary teachers’ experiences implementing a secondary flipped classroom model (FCM) in the United States. A FCM is a framework wherein students work at their own pace and use in-class time for active learning activities. The following questions were researched: (a) How do secondary FCM teachers describe their lived experiences from implementing the FCM? (b) What benefits, if any, do secondary teachers describe from implementing the FCM? (c) What challenges, if any, do secondary teachers describe from implementing the FCM? (d) What necessary resources do teachers perceive important for successful implementation of the FCM? The theory guiding this study was the diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory, which helps uncover the processes involved with the spread of an innovation or idea in a specific social system. DOI aids in the analysis of technology acceptance and adoption patterns of teachers. Data collection included questionnaires, interviews, and virtual focus groups from 12 participants, selected because they successfully used the FCM for at least one year and collaborate via social media regarding their experiences. Data were collected and analysis included organizing, synthesizing, reduction, and enumeration to develop themes. In-depth explorations of the participants’ perceptions of the FCM provided rich descriptions and to answer the four research questions, five themes were identified: changes to planning and preparation, best practices, resources and tools, benefits of implementation, and gaining buy-in. Overall, although participants stated they experienced challenging situations with implementing the FCM, the benefits outweighed the challenges.