School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


L. Daniele Bradshaw


Classroom Technology, Secondary Teacher, Teacher Self-Confidence Level, Technology Integration, Technology Self-Efficacy


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Online and Distance Education | Other Education


The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine how teachers from various levels of technology self-efficacy perceive and implement technology within their specific classroom. Using a qualitative approach, I explored four public schools from a medium to large-sized school district in the Southeastern United States. The Technology Integration Confidence Scale (TICS) was used to purposively select 10 secondary teachers from the west side of Beach County (a pseudonym). The secondary teachers were placed into three groups based upon their individual self-efficacy level towards technology integration: (a) low, (b) average, and (c) high. Data was collected through the following methods: (a) TICS questionnaire, (b) face-to-face interviews, (c) classroom observations, and (d) focus groups. Social cognitive theory and activity theory were used as the theoretical framework. The data was analyzed using the seven steps as prescribed by Moustakas (1994): (a) bracket my personal knowledge, (b) record all relevant statements, (c) list non-repetitive/non-overlapping statements, (d) develop meaning units, (e) synthesize themes, (f) reflect and construct a description, and (g) construct a composite description of the lived experiences. Using this framework, five distinct themes emerged: (a) perceived integrated environment, (b) criteria for selection, (c) professional development, (d) integration barriers, and (e) reflective observations. The findings of this study will impact two main stakeholders: (a) the district leadership, whereas the district must provide adequate availability as well as a comprehensive districtwide technology use plan and (b) the classroom teachers, whereas they need to make a commitment to learn as well as use the technology.