School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Fred Milacci


Millennial, Novice Teachers, Teacher Education, Technology Integration, TPACK


Curriculum and Social Inquiry | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Psychology | Online and Distance Education | Other Education | Teacher Education and Professional Development


The purpose of this hermeneutic phenomenological study was to describe the attitudes and understandings for millennial first-career novice (FCMN) teachers toward transformational technology integration in the elementary classroom as it relates to the technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge framework (TPACK). Three research questions framed this study: (a) How do millennial first-career novice teachers from the Midwestern United States describe their level of content knowledge, technological knowledge, and pedagogical knowledge (TPACK) to support their teaching practices in the elementary classroom? (b) How do participants describe their approach to instructional decision-making based on their technological knowledge in the elementary classroom? (c) How, if at all, do perceptions as preservice teachers now influence their perceptions as novice teachers in their current classroom setting? Self-reflective journals, task-based renderings, and semi-structured interviews were counted into the data collection process to achieve triangulation. Themes emerged with the application of the hermeneutic cycle. Line-by-line analysis gave way to descriptive codes along with interpretive reflection, rethinking, rereading, and rewriting to identify patterns of the phenomenon. The four themes were: (a) fluctuating context undermines quality of practice, (b) positive dispositional attitudes and growth experiences stabilize quality of practice, (c) professional support networks develop quality of practice, and (d) relative decision-making enriches the quality of practice. The FCMN teachers’ ability to use technology for transformative learning develops only after stabilizing the setting and gaining a depth of content and pedagogical knowledge within the elementary classroom.