School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Robin Dabney


Achievement Gap, One-to-One Laptops, Socio-Economic Status, Technology Enhanced Standardized Assessments


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Online and Distance Education | Other Education


This quantitative study extends previous research on the impact of one to one (1:1) laptop environments on student outcomes in English Language Arts (ELA) by focusing on students from various socio-economic backgrounds, while using a new technology-enhanced, state-administered assessment to measure performance. This study is significant because policy makers focus on state test scores when planning educational investments. Therefore, results from this study can assist policy makers in determining best practices related to technology integration to ensure equitable opportunities for all students. A non-experimental ex post facto causal comparative research design was used to explore the impact of 1:1 laptops on the ELA achievement of fifth grade students from various socio-economic backgrounds using a state-administered technology enhanced assessment. The target population included fifth grade students attending public schools within five different school systems located in a northeastern state that took the Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers (PARCC) assessment during the 2015-2016 school year. The sample size was 400 students. To measure ELA achievement, data from the 2015-2016 PARCC assessments was collected along with demographic information on socio-economic status. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant difference in the dependent variable (ELA PARCC scores) based on social economic status (FARMS vs. Non-FARMS). However, no significant difference was found in the dependent variable based on learning environment (1:1 laptop vs. not 1:1 laptop), and no significant interaction was found between learning environment and socio-economic status on PARCC ELA scores. Recommendations for future research are provided.