School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Rebecca Bowman


Individualized Education PlanMath Achievement, Parental Involvement, Standard of Learning


Curriculum and Social Inquiry | Disability and Equity in Education | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Educational Psychology | Outdoor Education


his study examined how school-facilitated parental involvement affects Standards of Learning (SOL) end-of-course exams for high school students in Virginia who are receiving special education services. This study examined test results from the 2012-2013, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015 school years for the Algebra I, Geometry, and Algebra II SOL exams, as well as results from the Special Education Parent Survey from the same school years. All data used in this study was archival data found on the Virginia Department of Education website. A review of the literature revealed there have been many studies conducted on the effects of parental involvement on students without disabilities; however, there were very few studies that examined the effects of school-facilitated parental involvement on academic achievement for students with disabilities, and even fewer studies that examined the variables based on individual disability categories. This study followed a correlational design. The predictor variable in this research was school-facilitated parental involvement scores reported by percentage for each public-school division in Virginia. The criterion variables were the Algebra I SOL, Geometry SOL, and Algebra II SOL pass rates (reported in percentage by each school division) for students who receive special education services for the 2012-2013, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015 school years. The researcher ran a Pearson’s r statistical analysis to determine if there was any strength and direction of relationship for groups that meet the criteria for a Pearson’s r analysis, and a Spearman’s correlation for groups that did not meet the sample size for the Pearson’s r. The researcher did not find a consistent relationship between the variables among groups tested.