Final Manuscript Preparation Guidelines for Journal for the Christian Pre-Law Society

This document provides details on typesetting and layout requirements pertaining to final manuscript submission to Journal for the Christian Pre-Law Society.

Formatting Requirements

  • Do not include a title page or abstract. (Begin the document with the introduction; a title page, including the abstract, will be added to your paper by the editors.)
  • Do not include page numbers, headers, or footers. These will be added by the editors.
  • Write your article in English (unless the journal expressly permits non-English submissions).
  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file (Word, WordPerfect, RTF, or PDF files are accepted).
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
  • All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), including your tables and figures.
  • Single space your text.
  • Use a single column layout with both left and right margins justified.
  • Font:
    1. Main Body—12 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
    2. Footnotes—10 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
  • If figures are included, use high-resolution figures, preferably encoded as encapsulated PostScript (eps).
  • Copyedit your manuscript.
  • When possible, there should be no pages where more than a quarter of the page is empty space.

Additional Recommendations

Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification

Indent all paragraphs except those following a section heading. An indent should be at least 2 em-spaces.

Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.

Don't "widow" or "orphan" text (i.e., ending a page with the first line of a paragraph or beginning a page with the last line of a paragraph).

All text should be left-justified (i.e., flush with the left margin—except where indented). Where possible, it should also be right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin). "Where possible" refers to the quality of the justification. For example, LaTeX and TeX do an excellent job of justifying text. Word does a reasonable job. But some word processors do a lousy job (e.g., they achieve right justification by inserting too much white space within and between words). We prefer flush right margins. However, it is better to have jagged right margins than to have flush right margins with awkward intra- and inter-word spacing. Make your decision on whichever looks best.

Language & Grammar

All submissions must be in English. Except for common foreign words and phrases, the use of foreign words and phrases should be avoided.

Authors should use proper, standard English grammar. The Elements of Style by William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White (now in its fourth edition) is the "standard" guide, but other excellent guides (e.g., The Chicago Manual of Style, University of Chicago Press) exist as well.

Article Length

Because this journal publishes electronically, page limits are not as relevant as they are in the world of print publications. We are happy, therefore, to let authors take advantage of this greater "bandwidth" to include material that they might otherwise have to cut to get into a print journal. This said, authors should exercise some discretion with respect to length.

Colored text

Set the font color to black for the majority of the text. We encourage authors to take advantage of the ability to use color in the production of figures, maps, etc., however, you need to appreciate that this will cause some of your readers problems when they print the document on a black & white printer. For this reason, you are advised to avoid the use of colors in situations where their translation to black and white would render the material illegible or incomprehensible.

Please ensure that there are no colored mark-ups or comments in the final version, unless they are meant to be part of the final text. (You may need to "accept all changes" in track changes or set your document to "normal" in final markup.)

Emphasized text

Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it. The use of color to emphasize text is discouraged.

Font faces

Except, possibly, where special symbols are needed, use Times or the closest comparable font available. If you desire a second font, for instance for headings, use a sans serif font (e.g., Arial or Computer Modern Sans Serif).

Font size

The main body of text should be set in 12pt. Avoid the use of fonts smaller than 6pt.

Foreign terms

Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.


Headings (e.g., start of sections) should be distinguished from the main body text by their fonts or by using small caps. Use the same font face for all headings and indicate the hierarchy by reducing the font size. There should be space above and below headings.

Main text

The font for the main body of text must be black and, if at all possible, in Times or closest comparable font available.


Whenever possible, titles of books, journals, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.


Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be in 10 pt. Times or closest comparable font available, they should be single spaced, and there should be a footnote separator rule (line). Footnote numbers or symbols in the text must follow, rather than precede, punctuation. Excessively long footnotes are probably better handled in an appendix. All footnotes should be left and right-justified (i.e., flush with the right margin), unless this creates awkward spacing.

Tables and Figures

To the extent possible, tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.


Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized. Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized. Whenever possible, subscripts and superscripts should be a smaller font size than the main text.

Short mathematical expressions should be typed inline. Longer expressions should appear as display math. Also expressions using many different levels (e.g., such as the fractions) should be set as display math. Important definitions or concepts can also be set off as display math.

Equations should be numbered sequentially. Whether equation numbers are on the right or left is the choice of the author(s). However, you are expected to be consistent in this.

Symbols and notation in unusual fonts should be avoided. This will not only enhance the clarity of the manuscript, but it will also help insure that it displays correctly on the reader's screen and prints correctly on her printer. When proofing your document under PDF pay particular attention to the rendering of the mathematics, especially symbols and notation drawn from other than standard fonts.


It is the author's obligation to provide complete citations with the necessary information. References should appear in footnotes at the bottom of the page that references an authority in the text. Each citation should give the last names of all the authors, their first names if a first citation to a work, and, optionally, their middle initials.

See The Bluebook to determine how to cite authorities. The front cover of The Bluebook provides a reference guide to common citation formats. Additionally, you can find the information to be given with citations to common authorities as follows:


Required: Party names, reporter volume number, reporter, and page number(s), court, and year. Omit the court name for U.S. Supreme Court cases. See pages 79-99 of The Bluebook, Rule 10. See also Table 1 for reporter names and court names, as well as Table 6 for case name abbreviations.

Example 1 (U.S. Supreme Court): Nollan v. California Coastal Commission, 483 U.S. 825 (1987).
Example 2: Ehrlich v. City of Culver City, 911 P.2d 429 (Cal. 1996).

Articles in traditional journals:

Required: Author's (authors') name(s), Titleof Article, volume number NAME OF JOURNAL page numbers (year of publication (or "n.d." if no date)). See pages 138-47 of The Bluebook, Rule 16. See also Table 13 for journal name abbreviations.

Example: Charles A. Reich, The New Property, 73 YALE L.J. 733, 737–38 (1964).

For forthcoming (in press) articles, put expected year of publication and substitute "forthcoming" for the volume and page numbers. See pages 149-51 of The Bluebook, Rules 17.2 and 17.4. This rule applies to books as well.

Example: Sarah Greenberger, Comment, Enforceable Rights, No Child Left Behind and Patriotism:
A Case for Open-Minded Section 1983 Jurisprudence, 153 U. PA. L. REV. (forthcoming Jan. 2005).

Optional (but desirable): A hyperlink to the article. See pages 153-56 of The Bluebook, Rules 18.1.4, 18.2.1, 18.2.2.

Example: Marcel & Edward B. Rock, Corporate Constitutionalism: Antitakeover Provisions as
Pre-Commitment, 152 U. PA. L. REV. (forthcoming Dec. 2003), available at 


Required: Author's (authors') name(s), TITLE OF BOOK page number(s) year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), as well as editor, publisher, publisher's address, edition, or original publication date, if required by The Bluebook. For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming," as for journal articles. See pages 129-37 of The Bluebook, Rule 15.

Example 1: CHARLES DICKENS, BLEAK HOUSE 50 (Norman Page ed., Penguin Books 1971) (1853).
57–58 (1995).

Chapters in collections or anthologies:

Required: Name(s) of author(s) of chapter, Title of Chapter, TITLE OF BOOK first page of chapter, pages cites from chapter name(s) of editor(s) of book, year of publication (or "n.d." if no date), as well as publisher, publisher's address, and edition, as required by The Bluebook. For forthcoming (in press) books, put expected year of publication and add "forthcoming." See pages 133-34 of The Bluebook, Rule 15.

Example: Andrew G. Ferguson, Continuing Seizure: Fourth Amendment Seizure in Section 1983
FEES ANNUAL HANDBOOK 54-1 (Steven Saltzman, ed. 1999).

Working papers:

Required: Author's (authors') name(s), Title of Working Paper, location (e.g., "Department of Economics Working Paper, University of California, Berkeley"), and year (or "n.d." if no date). If the paper is found online, cite to the website as in Rule 18.2.2: available at http://www.someurl.edu/author. If the working paper is part of series, then the series name and the number of the working paper within the series must also be given. See page 150 of The Bluebook, Rule 17.3.

Other works:

Required: Author's (authors') name(s), title of work, year (or "n.d." if no date), and information about how the reader could obtain a copy.

Other Citation Issues:

In citation and text, when there are two authors, use both names. For instance,

"Edlin and Reichelstein claim . . . "

For three authors, use all three names:

"Abel, Baker & Carter assert . . . "

If there are four or more authors give the name of the first author and append et al. For instance, a work by Abel, Baker, Charley, and Dilbert, would be cited as:

"Abel et al. propose"

Short Cite Formats:

After an initial cite, The Bluebook allows shortened formats throughout the rest of the article. Each of these has special rules, depending on the type of authority. Make sure to refer to The Bluebook section on the type of authority you need to cite.

For cases, see pages 97–99 of The Bluebook, Rule 10.9.

For journal articles, see pages 146–47 of The Bluebook, Rule 16.7.

For books, see pages 136–37 of The Bluebook, Rule 15.9.

For working papers and forthcoming sources, see pages 150–51 of The Bluebook, Rule 17.4.

The index at the back of The Bluebook can point you in the direction of answers to many citation questions.