In discussing the believers relationship to the Law and to God in Galatians 3:23-4:7 Paul used two figures from the culture of his day. First, he looked back and used the word "pedagogue" to describe the function of the Old Testament Law over Israel before the time of Christ: "Therefore the Law has become our tutor [παιδαγωγός] to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor [παιδαγωγό^]" (Gal. 3:24-25). Second, he looked at the relationship believers have with God and used the word "adoption" to describe the position of believers as that of sons: "so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons" (4:5). While the act of adoption is familiar today, the role of the pedagogue in Paul's day is not. Therefore an examination of the meaning, person, and function of the pedagogue can help believers understand the passage in Galatians.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the cultural background of the word παιδαγωγός and to demonstrate how Paul used this figure in his argument in Galatians.
Smith, Michael J., "The Role of the Pedagogue in Galatians" (2006). Faculty Publications and Presentations. 115.