Brian BerlinFollow




David K Schmal


Accordion, Content Analysis, Keyboard, Organ, Pedagogy, Piano


Music | Music Education | Music Theory | Other Music


While it is expected that musicians specialize in a single area, like piano, a complete keyboard education should also incorporate experiences on all keyboard instruments. There is no single method that teaches multiple keyboard instruments simultaneously. Willard Palmer, Bill Hughes, Morton Manus, and Amanda Vick Lethco co-wrote independent courses of instruction for different keyboard instruments: accordion, electronic keyboard, organ, and piano. However, no guide to align the material exists. This study establishes objective criteria for aligning these courses and provides a cross-reference tool. The samples chosen for analysis include: Alfred’s Basic Piano Library, Palmer-Hughes Accordion Course, Palmer-Hughes Spinet Organ Course, and Alfred's Basic Electronic Keyboard Method. Relational (content) analysis methodology is employed. The analytical units consist of elements taken from the printed music and are categorized as form elements and action elements. Tabular and graphical analyses are employed to process the data. The results are drawn from regression models representing the relative complexity of the right-hand parts in each method book. Using these results, correlations are established across the four keyboard methods.