Communication Studies


Master of Arts (MA)


Michael P Graves

Primary Subject Area

Literature, English; Journalism; Language, Rhetoric and Composition; Language, Linguistics; Gender Studies


Eliza Hawyood, Gentility, Joseph Addison, Richard Steele, The Female Spectator, The Spectator


Communication | Critical and Cultural Studies | Cultural History | Discourse and Text Linguistics | English Language and Literature | Gender and Sexuality | Mass Communication | Rhetoric and Composition


This study rhetorically analyzed the eighteenth century work of Richard Steele and Joseph Addison's The Spectator and Eliza Haywood's The Female Spectator using Kathleen Turner's framework for rhetorical history as social criticism integrating text and context. Ten essays from The Spectator as well as ten essays from The Female Spectator were selected based on content and subject matter regarding manners and gentility. When Turner's framework for analysis was applied to the essays, defining characteristics of gentility were revealed. A presentation of the results of the textual and contextual analysis of these twenty selected essays is provided. An analysis of the instruction of the different genders is also revealed. This study concludes with implications of the research and suggestions for future research.