Publication Date

Spring 2012


College of Arts and Sciences


Psychology: Clinical/Experimental

Primary Subject Area

Psychology, Social; Psychology, General; Psychology, Personality; Psychology, Psychobiology; Psychology, Psychometrics; Religion, General


spirituality, religiousness, gender, sex


This study explored the interaction of gender and spirituality. Most current research indicates that women are more religious than men. However, this phenomenon has various potential explanations. These explanations include socialization, church congregation factors, emotionality, individual motivation for religion, and biology. In this study a survey was administered to a convenience sample of 399 Liberty University students to assess their level of spirituality. This spirituality test was intended to measure the perceived significance of spiritual things in one’s life and interactions, level of activity in religious organizations, community involvement, and amount of studying for the purpose of spiritual enlightenment. Many previous surveys of spirituality and religiousness emphasize emotional and relational connection. It was hypothesized that men will score more similarly to women on spirituality if the survey emphasizes action and community involvement instead of emotional relationships. The results of this study were found to support this hypothesis, as there was virtually no significant difference between men and women’s scores on the spirituality test. This suggests instead of women being more spiritual than men, that there is simply a difference in how men and women express their spirituality.