College of Arts and Sciences
Throughout the United States, the use of the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) machine during cardiac surgery has become a widely employed practice. Although this machine has simplified cardiac surgery by allowing the heart to be stopped, the technology also causes adverse effects on a patient’s body and cognitive functions. These include complications of the inflammatory system, heart, lungs, kidneys, and brain. Using the CPB can not only cause physical harm, but it can also lead to cognitive decline that can affect the patient’s quality of life. Studying the CPB in terms of its adverse effects is imperative to making any effort to diminish the complications. Evidence-based research shows that methods utilizing equipment such as a membrane oxygenator, heparin-coated circuits, and ultrafiltration, as well as several medications may reduce the negative physical and neurocognitive outcomes.