This paper reviews the literature pertaining to total Quality management and its application in educational settings, especially at institutions of higher education. The review is organized into the following topical areas: the concept of “quality” (usually involving customer satisfaction, executive-level leadership, and employee involvement); TQM philosophy (including use of cross-functional teams), the Baldridge Educational Pilot Program (with 11 criteria for quality education programs); the Muhlenberg College Project (which has been applying TQM to every facet of campus life since 1992); elementary and secondary school renewal; school governance renewal; vocational school renewal (at the George Westinghouse Vocational & Technical High School in New York City); college/university business curriculum renewal (with applications in eight areas of the business curriculum); and TQM in the university. The following implications of TQM for higher education are presented as recommendations: (1) clearly define the concept of quality; (2) recognize the four interlocking assumptions of TQM (quality, people, organizations, and the role of senior management); (3) develop and use cross-functional teams; (4) develop and use a conceptual framework; (5) emphasize executive leadership; and (6) have schools of business lead the way in curriculum improvement.
Satterlee, Brian, "Continuous Improvement and Quality: Implications for Higher Education" (1996). Faculty Publications and Presentations. Paper 78.