School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Dr. Chick Holland

Primary Subject Area

Education, Secondary; Theater


High school, freshmen, Solomon four-group design, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale


Education | Educational Methods


This study examined the constructs of self-esteem and theatre arts. The experimental research utilized a Solomon four-group design, which included four groups of public high school freshmen. The study investigated whether or not self-esteem would increase after studying theatre arts, and if a cause and effect relationship existed between theatre arts and self-esteem. The study’s independent variable was a theatre arts treatment of ten lessons centered around a novel. The dependent variables were the scores on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965), a self-reporting and numerically measurable self-esteem survey. The scale was administered in a pretest and posttest format. The self-esteem survey was used to ascertain the cause and effect relationship between the constructs of theatre arts and self-esteem. The survey was a series of statements about the construct of self-esteem developed by Morris Rosenberg (1965). A one-way ANOVA showed that the treatment of theatre arts did have an effect on self-esteem. A paired-samples t test was conducted between the experimental group’s pretest and posttest scores showed that there was a cause and effect relationship between theatre arts and self-esteem.