Lisa KingFollow


School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Erik Mullinix

Primary Subject Area

Education, Educational Psychology; Education, General; Education, Guidance and Counseling; Education, Philosophy of; Education, Secondary; Education, Special; Education, Sociology of; Education, Tests and Measurements


Advance Organizers, Direct Behavior Rating (DBR), Resource Classroom, Single Case ABAB Design, Student Engagement, Subsumption Theory, Academic Engagement, Disruptive Behaviors, Expository Advance Organizer, Respectful Behaviors, Resource (Self-Contained) Special Education Class


Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Methods | Educational Psychology | Secondary Education and Teaching | Special Education and Teaching


Student engagement and appropriate behaviors are essential for effective instruction in secondary special education classrooms. Research suggests that proactive engagement strategies and interventions can have a greater effect on overall classroom behaviors than negative consequences. A single case experiment measured the effects of expository advance organizers on academically engaged behavior, respectful behavior, and disruptive behavior in the special education self-contained resource classroom. The single-case A-B-A-B design for this study evaluates these components of student engagement during academic instruction over a four-week period. Three secondary special education small-group resource Language Arts classes from a Northeast Georgia high school comprised the subject for this study. The Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) Form: 3 Standard Behaviors instrument was used to collect and analyze data. Hypotheses stated that the expository advance organizer strategy has an impact on student academic engagement behaviors, student respectful behaviors and student disruptive behaviors in the special education resource classroom.