School of Education


Doctor of Education (EdD)


Mark Angle

Primary Subject Area

Education, General; Music; Education, Music; History, European


Bach chorales, chordal analysis, corpus analysis, harmonic implications, non-harmonic tones


Composition | Cultural History | Education | European History | Music


This study sought to identify the harmonic implications of the non-harmonic tones in the four-part chorales of Johann Sebastian Bach and to identify if the implications were modern, extended harmonies. The study examined if non-harmonic tones implied traditional or extended harmonies more often, which non-harmonic tones more frequently implied extended harmonies, and which chords typically preceded implied extended harmonies. The study was a corpus analysis of the four-part chorales. The data collected was organized in and analyzed with frequency charts and a chi-square goodness of fit test and chi-square tests of independence from the chordal analysis conducted by the researcher. Harmonic implications of extended harmonies not only exist in the chorales but are also nearly as plentiful as implications of seventh chords. A single non-harmonic tone is most likely to produce an implication of an extended harmony and triads are most likely to precede an extended harmony.